Missals from Iram

Liturgical books from a lost city.
Enamel effigy of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, on his tomb at the Cathedral of Saint Julian, Le Mans, France, c. 1151. This is the first known depiction of a hereditary coat of arms: While emblems and decorated shields have been used throughout history, heraldry, as a system of identificatory, inheritable, and formalized emblems based on shields did not appear until the 1100s. The origins of heraldry are mysterious and essentially remain unknown: In 1100, heraldry did not exist, but by 1200, heraldry appears as the sole element of the personal seals of monarchs, nobles, and burghers in England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.

Enamel effigy of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, on his tomb at the Cathedral of Saint Julian, Le Mans, France, c. 1151. This is the first known depiction of a hereditary coat of arms: While emblems and decorated shields have been used throughout history, heraldry, as a system of identificatoryinheritable, and formalized emblems based on shields did not appear until the 1100s. The origins of heraldry are mysterious and essentially remain unknown: In 1100, heraldry did not exist, but by 1200, heraldry appears as the sole element of the personal seals of monarchs, nobles, and burghers in England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.

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